Many genitourinary (GU) disorders such as kidney disease begin developing during childhood and adolescence (Johns Hopkins Children’s Center, 2010). This early onset of disease makes it essential for you, as the advanced practice nurse caring for pediatric patients, to identify potential signs and symptoms. Although some pediatric GU disorders require long-term treatment and management, other disorders such as bedwetting or urinary tract infections are more common and frequently require only minor interventions. In your role with pediatric patients, you must evaluate symptoms and determine whether to treat patients or refer them for specialized care. For this Discussion, consider potential diagnoses, treatment, and/or referral options for the patients in the following three case studies. Case Study 1
You see a 3-year-old with a 2-day history of complaints of dysuria with frequent episodes of enuresis despite potty training about 7 months ago. She is afebrile and denies vomiting. Physical examination is normal. Dipstick voided urine analysis reveals: specific gravity 1.015, Protein 1+ non-hemolyzed blood, 1+ nitrites, 1+ leukocytes, and glucose-negative. Case Study 2
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Mark is a 15-year-old with complaint of acute left scrotal pain with nausea. The pain began approximately 6 hours ago as a dull ache and has gradually worsened to where he can no longer stand without doubling over. He is afebrile and in marked pain. Physical exam is negative except for elevation of the left testicle, diffuse scrotal edema, and the presence of a blue dot sign. Case Study 3
Maya is a 5-year-old who presents for a well-child visit. She is a healthy child with no complaints. Physical examination is normal. Routine urinalysis indicates 2+ proteinuria; specific gravity 1.020; negative for glucose, blood, leukocytes, and nitrites. Her blood pressure is normal, and she is at the 60th percentile for height and weight.
To prepare: Review “Genitourinary Disorders” in the Burns et al. text. Review and select one of the three provided case studies. Analyze the patient information. Consider a differential diagnosis for the patient in the case study you selected. Think about the most likely diagnosis for the patient. Think about a treatment and management plan for the patient. Be sure to consider appropriate dosages for any recommended pharmacologic and/or non-pharmacologic treatments. Consider strategies for educating patients and families on the treatment and management of the genitourinary disorder. By Day 3
Post an explanation of the differential diagnosis for the patient in the case study you selected. Explain which is the most likely diagnosis for the patient and why. Include an explanation of unique characteristics of the disorder you identified as the primary diagnosis. Then, explain a treatment and management plan for the patient, including appropriate dosages for any recommended treatments. Finally, explain strategies for educating patients and families on the treatment and management of the genitourinary disorder.